- September 15, 2014 at 5:32 pm
@fatema (Morrisons 2011, Morrisons 2014) should be fine (or Morrisons Annual Report 2011) etc depending on how exactly you are designating your refs in the text – put them under the graph/table or in the text where they are mentioned. Just be consistent and use the same designation in the list followed by the URL -more or less as you have them above. If you want to put page numbers that’s great but it is only a requirement for higher degree level work e.g.Masters.
I have set out the basic rules in my answers to Captmario so search for those. Again do not get into a tizz – it is lack of referencing, badly organised lists and inconsistent designations that I’ve detected annoy markers – they don’t expect it to be 100%perfect as long as it is relatively clear and you show you understand the main rules (I made a few mistakes myself with my MSc but wasn’t penalised) so chill baby! Chill! 🙂September 16, 2014 at 12:03 am
@zilyenge Essentially what you are suggesting is correct. Don’t get too neurotic about it all – see my answers to Captmario in ‘Reference list and format of references’ and @fatema on ‘Harvard Referencing’ (will amalgamate these forums as we don’t need 3!) – it is lack of referencing and ‘ lazy’ referencing ( where the student doesn’t show exactly what they are referencing) or lots of ‘Anon’/ Wikipedia references that lead to fails- where there is a reasonable effort to reference correctly markers tend to be ok if you mess up the odd one here and there (I have done it myself) 🙂September 16, 2014 at 8:32 am
Stay blessed. I will definitely mention OpenTuition website as one of the sources where I got helpful advice for my RAP.
You really help! This help is not even worth to be for free!! Thanx a trillion times!!!September 16, 2014 at 6:18 pm
@zilyenge Thanks for your kind comments we at OT are pleased that we,have been able to help with our forums and articles. Spread the word to your friends – there is help out there just a couple of clicks away at opentuition.com. 😀September 17, 2014 at 5:19 pm
If I put Morrisons 2011 followed by the URL in the reference list, how does the marker know from the report (where it just says Morrison 2011) the reference belongs to dividend cover figures? Do I mention Dividend Cover somewhere in the text or reference list?
RegardsSeptember 18, 2014 at 8:06 am
@fatema so put in the page numbers as p.3 or p.46 whatever after the year of your document in your text reference then. Unless the URL is different then you do not have to repeat the same URL each time in the reference list. The marker will see and find the reference in the list by Morrisons (2011) or CEO report Morrisons (2011) etc. Just because you use different pages from the same document does not usuallyrequire more than one entry in the listSeptember 19, 2014 at 3:45 pm
I have made an appendices folder in which I have included 6 Excel Documents (some have more than one graph and workings). Is this Ok? Does the marker open the folder etc and view each document?
Second: I would like to show the spread sheet formulae for two of these documents as evidence. can the marker see this as I can, when I go to ‘view formula’ on excel document or do I have to show this separately? If so please could you tell me how, and do I add this to appendices folder.
Do you convert these and all other files to Pdf etc before sending to OBU?
FatemaSeptember 20, 2014 at 9:39 pm
@fatema Do your graphs etc in your Excel spreadsheets and then copy them over to your work as images. You need to insert them in your report in the appropriate place – usually it is better to have them at the start of each section e.g. graph on gross profit and discussion of what has caused the movements in the trends for GP (in particular any SWOT /PESTLE factors) then move on to the next ratio: graph followed by explanations and so on.
The appendices are more for workings l for the Excel spreadsheets and extra materia. Load them as .xls files then your formulae will be visible. Please see p.51 of the Info Pack as it tells you which file formats you must use.
You can load several Appendices files (not folders) so just number each one and there is provision to load at least 10 separate files (to include the report and SLS) for your submissionOctober 7, 2014 at 7:27 pm
I am using an online generator to generate my in-text references and reference list but some of the referencing seems weird and there seem to be no one definite source to confirm so I wish to seek your kind attention in verifying if these references are correctly done as according to Harvard Referencing Style. An example that fits my description would be as follows:
In-text: (Agr.gc.ca, 2010)
Bibliography: Agr.gc.ca, (2010). The Canadian Coffee Industry – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). [online] Available at: https://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/industry-markets-and-trade/statistics-and-market-information/by-product-sector/processed-food-and-beverages/the-canadian-coffee-industry/?id=1172237152079 [Accessed 6 Oct. 2014].
Meanwhile, am I suppose to reference how I’m using this online generator and include in my bibliography?
I’m sorry if there’s a similar forum on this but I’m rushing for Period 29 submission currently so yes, I apologize. Thank you.October 7, 2014 at 9:48 pm
When referencing Financial Statements (several times) do we have to specify the pages or not? Thanks
AmarainOctober 7, 2014 at 11:49 pm
@amarain – stating actual pages is admirable and certainly expected at higher degree level but you will not be penalised for not stating pages in your RAP references. What I do suggest though is to differentiate where you are just using the annual report and where you are using a particular report within it e.g. the CEO report or Directors’ report. So for figures from the FS I would just put (XYZ, 2014) and for citing management comments (CEO XYZ, 2014 ). If you want to use page numbers instead to save on the word count then of course you may do so.October 8, 2014 at 5:40 am
Thanks a lot! You are a star!
AmarainOctober 8, 2014 at 10:26 am
@nick123 – the general rules for OBU referencing are that
1.you must show exactly what in the text you are referencing (not just throw references in at the end of paragraphs)
2. Your list should be organised so that the reference can be found quickly ( e.g. the list is in alphabetical order and the same designations are used in the text and list)
3. There should be sufficient information that the reader can either locate the document or at least verify that it exists.
Your example above (provided you are inserting in the text appropriately) seems to fulfil these requirements. However perhaps @bassaniobroke (a fellow moderator) or @salahuddin (a valued contributor) can comment on auto-generated lists as I don’t have firsthand experience.October 11, 2014 at 2:41 pm
I am becoming a bit paranoid about the referencing. For example when explaining PESTEL if I only use one book and then put according to BPP bla bla bla and tell about PESTEL is not too much? On the other hand if I use two books one for Politica another for Social etc.. at the end of this sentence do I have to repeat the same book again just to make sure the marker don’t think I am doing plagiarism? Please help! Thanks
AmarainOctober 13, 2014 at 8:15 am
@amarain – yes easy to become paranoid on this as it can be a common cause of failure. Depends exactly what you are referencing
Remember though that:
1. As Kaplan, BPP etc did not ‘invent’ the ratios or SWOT / PESTLE there is no need to reference their definitions and the general theory (common knowledge does not require acknowledgement). However other citations from these texts if not widely known will need referencing and direct citations will need quotation marks “like this” + ref.
2. Try to avoid a textbook approach to your financial analysis. It is inevitable perhaps for liquidity and ratios where external information may not be available but avoid it wherever possible as it is usually too generalised to be relevant and acceptableOctober 13, 2014 at 2:11 pm
Can anyone guide me about this, it’s a simple question does citing annual report like this is sufficient “XYZ Annual Report 2013” ? And I’m talking about citing in this way in all analysis like EPS and other ratios.
And secondly when exactly to use title of the webpage lets say there is a site that has free specialist information (Investopedia), there should I use title of webpage as citation or name of website?
RegardsOctober 13, 2014 at 2:55 pm
Many thanks Trephena,
But what do you mean when you say “avoid a texbook approach” could you please expand further on this? Many thanks
AmarainOctober 13, 2014 at 4:18 pm
@R – your annual report citation is fine. Do not use web addresses in the text e.g. if you were citing an online article from say Open Tuition you should only put (Opentuition.com, 2014) in the body of your RAP but paste the URL / webpage in your reference list so that the reader can access it.
A word of warning – do not overdo references to WIkipedia as in academic circles they are frowned upon as being lazy research and wiki is considered to be an unreliable source. I suggest to students they use Wiki to find sources and cite those actual sources instead to get round this. You may find Google Scholar much better as an academic search engine (post-grad students use it extensively) but many of the journal articles require a subscription but sometimes you can find them elsewhere if you search using keywords. (Some colleges have block subscriptions, so worth asking your librarian)
(Oh on that subject possibly OT would be viewed similarly and considered an ‘unreliable source’ for the RAP but that is only from an academic point of view – I am very knowledge able about the actual RAP requirements 🙂 and certainly it would not be a problem citing us in the SLS as that is not an academic piece of work but your personal experiences).October 13, 2014 at 4:25 pm
@amarain -it is making generalised statements often of the obvious kind or writing something that reads like the notes to the accounts. It is difficult to avoid this for some ratios where there is limited information publicly available but such an approach if used throughout would definitely lead to a fail in E&A. See my article on Evaluation Part I :
as I discuss this at the last half of the articleOctober 14, 2014 at 10:04 pm
Thanks! very helpful!
AmarainOctober 18, 2014 at 10:46 am
Could someone advise me on how to cite business models?
For example, the 7ps of marketing?
What I obtained from a website was the below.
Bitner, M. J. and Booms, H. (1981). Marketing Strategies and Organization: Structure for Service Firms. In Donnelly, J. H. and George, W. R. (Eds). Marketing of Services, Conference Proceedings. Chicago, IL. American Marketing Association. p. 47- 52.
I’m using the citation tool in MS word and I’m a little confuse on the citation source. Should I be referencing the source to a conference proceedings or a book?
In my report, I believe I should be citing [Bitner, M. J. and Booms, H. (1981)]?
But in the bibliography should show the full text above? Or should i cite it to the website that I obtained this information from?
Many thanks for the advice =)October 19, 2014 at 11:29 am
@linn – that reference looks fine to me for the ref list and text. I have interpreted it as meaning that the co-authors Bitner & Booms originally presented this as a conference paper and it has subsequently been included in a book called Marketing of Services edited by Donnelly & George. You would only cite the conference if you had been a delegate at it that’s where you first discovered the information. I am guessing this would be impossible as at best you were probably only a child or not even born in 1981!!!! 😀 . You could add available at: and include the website addressOctober 19, 2014 at 3:58 pm
Thanks for the explanation =)October 22, 2014 at 8:25 am
Can we use microsoft word’s built in tool for citations and creating reference list? Can anyone please tell if it would be alright to use it?October 22, 2014 at 9:54 am
Consult this link…there are many websites that can generate reference according to requirement of Harvard Referencing so better to use these websites rather than built in tool of MS word…..
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