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What are claimant, plaintiff, and defendant?
Who is the injured party that suffer the losses and who caused that?
Plaintiff and defendant are the two main characters in a civil case brought to Court asking for a legal judgement on a dispute.
In a contract situation where one party doesn’t perform strictly in accordance with the terms of the agreement, then the aggrieved party (the injured party, the one that has suffered the loss) can take action against the wrong-doer (the one that has caused the injury or loss) by taking them to Court
As a result of that first case, one party wins and the other loses. If the loser isn’t happy with the Court’s decision, they may appeal to a higher Court. In that situation, their title is ‘claimant’ or ‘petitioner’ and the other party has the title ‘respondent’