a) when you say the debt to equity ratio is 0.2 wouldn’t this mean 20% of debt out of %100 capital? and therefore would it not be 20 to 80? instead of 100 to 20?

b) when taking account of the gearing in the Beta, in this example you used 100 as value for equity, however if the figure was expressed as a percentage would this formula still work?

Gearing can be expressed in two way (and the question will always tell you which way).

Debt to equity of 0.2 means that debt is 0.2 x equity. i.i. for 100 equity, 20 debt.

The alternative is debt to total long-term finance (debt + equity) and in that case it would be 30 debt to 80 equity.

You can use any numbers, provided the ratio is the same, and you will get the same answer. E.g. use 20 and 100, or use 40 and 200. It will be the same answer.

No – there are two different ratios. Either debt/equity or debt/(equity+debt). The question will always tell you which of the two gearing ratios to use.

Regearing the beta is calculating the equity beta by using the asset beta formula backwards. It is covered in this lecture that you are commenting on.

I’m having a problem playing this lecture, I’ve tried it on numerous devices (and in my dad’s!) for a few days now and it still stops after the intro.
I’ve never had a problem playing any other lectures before or since.
Is anybody else able to play it?

When we know the asset beta for the project (by ungearing the equity beta of a company is the same sort of business), we then regear it for the project based on the gearing of the project. Unless we are told different we assume that the project will be financed in the same gearing ratio as the current gearing of the company.

I would just like to say thanks a million for posting these lectures. You’re a brilliant lecturer and simplify topics so that the viewer understands how the formulae work, which enables one to reason things out rather than just memorise and hope for the best. Brilliant work and thank you for making our lives easier

Hi Mr Moffat, i just have small question once again,,as you said , Beta is the level of risk of an investment relative to the market (stock exchange average), this focuses specifically on the systematic risk, assuming the shareholders hold diversified shares which eliminate or rather deal with the unsystematic risk by themselves,, my question is as u said the beta is partly affected by the level of gearing,, in which the gearing is unsystematic risk in which we have assumed to be eliminated,,so how come the beta have both an element of systematic and unsystematic risk?

I sincerely appreciate for the awesome lectures and for the quick response you normally respond from the earlier questions,, thanks once again.

Gearing is not risk that can be measured in its own right. If profits before interest were certain (no risk) then the dividends would also be certain (no risk).

What gearing does (because of the fixed interest) is make the existing risk (due to the profits being risky) greater.

We are only interested in systematic risk (for the reasons you state above), but if there is gearing then this risk will be increased for shareholders because of the fixed interest, and therefore the equity beta will be higher.

Gearing is not unsystematic risk – unsystematic risk is due to factors specific to the company (e.g. new management makes things more risky). Gearing makes this risk bigger as well, but we are not interested in unsystematic risk.

(If my explanation of why gearing makes the existing risk bigger confuses you at all, then you will find a lecture here for F9 explaining how gearing makes the risk bigger, with a few simple numbers)

Simply made simple. I just wonder why we must do the Asset beta calculations when we can tell just by looking at the two beta of shares which have been given that P plc has a higher beta thus more risky.

The share with the higher beta is certainly the more risky share.

However, shares are risky for two reasons – partly because of the riskiness of the business and partly because of the way the business is financed (the level of gearing).

The equity beta measures the riskiness of the share, but the asset beta takes out the effect of the gearing and measures the riskiness of the actual business. The question in the lecture asks for two things – which share is the more risky, and secondly which is the more risky business. The only way you can answer the second question it to remove the gearing effect by calculating the asset beta, and then comparing the two. Since the level of gearing in the two companies is different, there is no way of finding out which is the more risky business without calculating the asset beta.

Thanks, i think i did not realize how different the two questions are. so simple how we fail exams!!!
Then i get the conclusion that a company would have more risky shares yet lessor risky business activity right? just that coincidentally P plc happens to be the more risky share as well as having the more risky business activity.

brenda1 says

Halo Sir, please kindly explain to me the word “gearing”. I think Im not understanding it well

Thanks

fahim231 says

hello sir

great lecture…….just a couple of questions

a) when you say the debt to equity ratio is 0.2 wouldn’t this mean 20% of debt out of %100 capital? and therefore would it not be 20 to 80? instead of 100 to 20?

b) when taking account of the gearing in the Beta, in this example you used 100 as value for equity, however if the figure was expressed as a percentage would this formula still work?

thanks

John Moffat says

Gearing can be expressed in two way (and the question will always tell you which way).

Debt to equity of 0.2 means that debt is 0.2 x equity. i.i. for 100 equity, 20 debt.

The alternative is debt to total long-term finance (debt + equity) and in that case it would be 30 debt to 80 equity.

You can use any numbers, provided the ratio is the same, and you will get the same answer. E.g. use 20 and 100, or use 40 and 200. It will be the same answer.

fahim231 says

so regarding the alternative debt to equity, how would 0.2 debt get you 30 debt to 80 equity?

John Moffat says

Sorry – I mistyped. I meant to write 20 debt to 80 equity (so debit is 0.2 times total long-term capital).

fahim231 says

oh i see, so their both the same ratio but just expressed in a different way?

One more thing sir can you please tell me how to re gear ? or point me to a lecture where you cover this? if you do cover this?

John Moffat says

No – there are two different ratios. Either debt/equity or debt/(equity+debt). The question will always tell you which of the two gearing ratios to use.

Regearing the beta is calculating the equity beta by using the asset beta formula backwards. It is covered in this lecture that you are commenting on.

fahim231 says

I thought what we were doing this lecture was called de gearing?

John Moffat says

But this is only part (b) of the lecture. Finish the lecture by watching part(c) of it as well!

Michael says

I’m having a problem playing this lecture, I’ve tried it on numerous devices (and in my dad’s!) for a few days now and it still stops after the intro.

I’ve never had a problem playing any other lectures before or since.

Is anybody else able to play it?

rayhaankhambiye says

Sir i am in trouble once again when do we regear the company

John Moffat says

We don’t regear the company.

When we know the asset beta for the project (by ungearing the equity beta of a company is the same sort of business), we then regear it for the project based on the gearing of the project. Unless we are told different we assume that the project will be financed in the same gearing ratio as the current gearing of the company.

cormac says

Thank you John. All your lectures are excellent. You are a great teacher!

sherese22 says

I would just like to say thanks a million for posting these lectures. You’re a brilliant lecturer and simplify topics so that the viewer understands how the formulae work, which enables one to reason things out rather than just memorise and hope for the best. Brilliant work and thank you for making our lives easier

John Moffat says

Thank you very much, and good luck in the exams

SOUD SAEED says

Hi Mr Moffat, i just have small question once again,,as you said , Beta is the level of risk of an investment relative to the market (stock exchange average), this focuses specifically on the systematic risk, assuming the shareholders hold diversified shares which eliminate or rather deal with the unsystematic risk by themselves,, my question is as u said the beta is partly affected by the level of gearing,, in which the gearing is unsystematic risk in which we have assumed to be eliminated,,so how come the beta have both an element of systematic and unsystematic risk?

I sincerely appreciate for the awesome lectures and for the quick response you normally respond from the earlier questions,, thanks once again.

John Moffat says

Gearing is not risk that can be measured in its own right. If profits before interest were certain (no risk) then the dividends would also be certain (no risk).

What gearing does (because of the fixed interest) is make the existing risk (due to the profits being risky) greater.

We are only interested in systematic risk (for the reasons you state above), but if there is gearing then this risk will be increased for shareholders because of the fixed interest, and therefore the equity beta will be higher.

Gearing is not unsystematic risk – unsystematic risk is due to factors specific to the company (e.g. new management makes things more risky). Gearing makes this risk bigger as well, but we are not interested in unsystematic risk.

(If my explanation of why gearing makes the existing risk bigger confuses you at all, then you will find a lecture here for F9 explaining how gearing makes the risk bigger, with a few simple numbers)

Yama says

Hi John,

I have a quick question on example 1 page 114. P plc gearing ratio 0.4

We took the following:

Equity 100

Debt 40

I’m just confused why we didn’t take:

Equity 60

Debt 40

John Moffat says

The gearing was defined in the question as being debt to equity – so for every 100 equity there is 40 debt.

lydiaw says

Hi John,

I have a quick question on example 1 page 114. P plc gearing ratio 0.4

We took the following:

Equity 100

Debt 40

I’m just confused why we didn’t take:

Equity 60

Debt 40

Sorry if I’ve missed something obvious but if you could clarify for me.

Thanks in advance

Lydia

308002873 says

This is the same thing i’m confused about too. i understand everything else but that equity 100 / debt 40 i just don’t get.

Yando says

Simply made simple. I just wonder why we must do the Asset beta calculations when we can tell just by looking at the two beta of shares which have been given that P plc has a higher beta thus more risky.

John Moffat says

The share with the higher beta is certainly the more risky share.

However, shares are risky for two reasons – partly because of the riskiness of the business and partly because of the way the business is financed (the level of gearing).

The equity beta measures the riskiness of the share, but the asset beta takes out the effect of the gearing and measures the riskiness of the actual business. The question in the lecture asks for two things – which share is the more risky, and secondly which is the more risky business. The only way you can answer the second question it to remove the gearing effect by calculating the asset beta, and then comparing the two. Since the level of gearing in the two companies is different, there is no way of finding out which is the more risky business without calculating the asset beta.

Yando says

Thanks, i think i did not realize how different the two questions are. so simple how we fail exams!!!

Then i get the conclusion that a company would have more risky shares yet lessor risky business activity right? just that coincidentally P plc happens to be the more risky share as well as having the more risky business activity.

jeweltrinidad says

Thanks John, really brought a simple understanding. Great Lecture.

manvilles says

thank you totally get it

mahongo says

The lecture is really good .. thanks John and OT!!!!

temi says

you are simply the best John, is it only f9 you take

tatipast says

this is the best teacher I have ever, ever listen, thank you so much 10+

Saad Bin Aziz says

wow . that was one hell of a lecture! thanks john! you should write a book you know!